Analyzing the Spill-over Matrix of Extractivism: From Para-legality, Separation and Violence to Integral Health in the Ecuadorian Íntag

Analyzing the Spill-over Matrix of Extractivism: From Para-legality, Separation and Violence to Integral Health in the Ecuadorian Íntag

By Johannes Waldmüller

On 3rd March 2015, Eduardo Gudynas held a talk at FLACSO, Ecuador, titled “Los efectos derrame de los extractivismos: energía, consumo, territorio y resistencias” (“Spill-over effects of extractivisms: energy, consumption, territory and resistances”) at a one-day conference on energy matrices in Latin America and possible shifts. In his presentation, which I was kindly granted access to report and comment on, he deduced in detail the effects on several sectors of societies of persistent, and partly reinforced, heavy dependence on natural resources, as in countries such as Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico and, of course, Venezuela (whose oil exports account for 96% of its export earnings, thus virtually exporting nothing else). It should be stressed that these mechanisms reside not only in the foundations of climate change, but also inherently in global capitalism and warfare – altering them would be equal to improving the current state of the planet.

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Human Rights Indicators as “Development 2.0”?

Human Rights Indicators as “Development 2.0”?

By Johannes Waldmüller

Are there currently more alternative projects of and to development ongoing in the Latin American region? Others than, for example, Buen Vivir (Ecuador)/Vivir Bien (Bolivia), self-governance, participatory budgeting and a general political rupture through the appearance of, what de la Cadena has called, “Earth-beings” (2010)? In this article, I trace another legal-technical, yet humanist, approach to improve people lives in the region; one that has been termed as 'Development 2.0'. This label points at the fusion of two overlapping, yet partly contradicting businesses and movements: social and econ sciences-related development, on the one hand, and legal and technical human rights, on the other (de Béco, 2014). While for a long time both were promoted somehow separately – by different actors and through different institutions (what de Béco has characterized as rather strictly ‘norm-related’ in the case of human rights and more flexible ‘change-related’ in the case of development) – recent advances and ongoing debates regards post-2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) have spurred initiatives toward mutually more integral approaches (e.g. Raza and Baxewanos, 2013). 

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Buen Vivir, Sumak Kawsay, 'Good Living': An Introduction and Overview

Buen Vivir, Sumak Kawsay, 'Good Living': An Introduction and Overview

By Johannes Waldmüller

This overview and introduction to Buen Vivir and/or Sumak Kawsay refers to the context and discussion in Ecuador. It differentiates between Buen Vivir and Sumak Kawsay as well as between (at least) three main types of this vast field of discourses and practices: (1) a state-led program for the 'socialism of the 21st century"; (2) a post-modern utopian and intellectual project, drawing on indigenous Andean values; and (3) an (essentializing) 'indigenist' form of living and thinking that adds spiritual ontological dimensions, based on individually and collectively acquiring a practice of all-connected consciousness.

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